The main difference between RIPv1 and RIPv2 is classless routing. RIPv2 incorporates the addition of the network mask in the update to allow classless routing advertisements. This is extremely important for the flexibility needed to efficiently utilize network assignments for an ever-shrinking pool of IP addresses.
There are other differences, as well. In RIPv2, the destination address for the updates is multicast, instead of broadcast, as in RIPv1. This reduces the burden on the network devices that do not need to listen to RIP updates. With broadcast, every device on the broadcast domain must at least open the IP packet and process the initial information to determine relevance. With multicast addressing, if a device needs that information, it will listen to that specific address. If it does not need the RIP information, it does not have to process the multicast address. The multicast address RIPv2 sends to is 18.104.22.168.
Another addition to RIPv2 is authentication. Authentication is used to ensure that routes being distributed throughout the network are coming from authorized sources.
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The characteristics of RIPv2 follow:
- Distance-vector protocol.
- Use UDP port 520.
- Makes Automatic summarization on network Class boundary.
- Classless protocol (supports VLSMs).
- Have the power to shut the Auto-summarization And make a configured manual Summarization.
- Supports VLSMs.
- Metric is router hop count.
- Maximum hop count is 15; infinite (unreachable) routes have a metric of 16.
- Periodic route updates sent every 30 seconds to multicast address 22.214.171.124.
- 25 routes per RIP message (24 if authentication is used).
- Invalid route marked after 180 sec.
- Flush timer is 280 sec.
- Hold-down timer 180 sec.
- Supports authentication.
- Implements split horizon with poison reverse.
- Implements triggered updates.
- Subnet mask included in route entry.
- Administrative distance for RIPv2 is 120.
- Used in small, flat networks or at the edge of larger networks.
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1. The RIP process operates from UDP port 520.
2. The metric used by RIP is hop count, with 1 signifying a directly connected network of the advertising router and 16 signifying an unreachable network.
3. RIP sends periodic updates every 30 seconds minus a small random variable that prevents the updates of neighboring routers from becoming synchronized.
4. Default route can be advertised in the RIP domain several ways: e.g. (1) static route to 0.0.0.0, with the “redistribute static” command, (2) “default-information originate” command, and (3) “ip default-network” command.
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